The Ring-necked Francolin (Francolinus streptophorus) is a medium-sized bird that belongs to the family Phasianidae. It is also known by various other names such as Indian Francolin, Black Francolin, and Common Francolin. This bird species can be easily recognized due to its distinct coloration and patterning.
The Ring-necked Francolin is mainly found in the Indian Subcontinent, ranging from Pakistan and India to Nepal and Bhutan. It is also found in some parts of Southeast Asia. The bird prefers to inhabit grasslands, scrublands, and agricultural fields with some scattered shrubs or trees. They can also be found near human habitats like farms and villages.
The male Ring-necked Francolin is typically larger than the females and can grow up to 33 cm in length. The body of the bird is brownish-black in color, with some pale black spots on the upper parts. The chin, throat, and neck have distinct white or cream-colored stripes. It has a chestnut-colored band that runs across the upper breast, and a narrow white band above it. The bird has a distinctive black ring around the neck, which gives it its common name.
The Ring-necked Francolin is a ground-dwelling bird and forages on the ground for seeds, insects, and small invertebrates. During the breeding season, male birds can be heard making a loud, harsh, and repetitive call, "krookroo-ko-ko." The pair will generally construct a shallow scrape on the ground and lay around 6 to 10 eggs. The eggs are incubated for around 21 days, and the chicks hatch fully feathered and ready to leave the nest within hours of hatching.
The Ring-necked Francolin is often hunted for meat and is also targeted by the pet trade. As a result, the population of the bird is declining in some areas. Nevertheless, it is still a common and widespread bird in the Indian Subcontinent and has adapted well to human-dominated landscapes. The Ring-necked Francolin is a fascinating bird that has been revered in some cultures and is a source of inspiration for literature and poetry.